Assuming that the exact mutation does not occur in humans, it is still likely that any variant in a gene that shows a strong phenotype in animal studies will contribute to the disease phenotype in humans. Turning gene function ON and OFF using sense and antisense photo-morpholinos in zebrafish. The one-cell-stage fertilized eggs can be easily injected with DNA or RNA to permanently modify their genetic makeup in order to generate transgenic or knock-out zebrafish lines. But, there are also purely scientific reasons why ‘lower’ organisms, such as zebrafish, can create a better model system. McCutcheon V (1) (2), Park E (2), Liu E (2), Wang Y (2), Wen XY (1) (2) (3) (4), Baker AJ (1) (2) (5) (6). This is quite different from mice as they generally produce litters of one to 10 pups and can only bear approximately three litters in their lifetime. Not only does this add to the refinement of animal usage, it also minimises the number of animals that need to be used because it reduces the between subject variation that can be caused by stress. Random mutations are introduced into the genome and the offspring are screened for the phenotype of interest. These results helped to establish that SETDB1 is an important gene in melanoma growth. Zebrafish produce hundreds of offspring at weekly intervals providing scientists with an ample … Ensuring a ready supply of animals for research is also easier with zebrafish. The ability of zebrafish to generate many embryos every time they breed makes them especially useful for high throughput drug screening. While mice have been the predominant animal bridge between the bench and bedside in the past, recent studies have demonstrated the potential of zebrafish to serve as a tractable alternative to mice. A trio of researchers, two with the University of Calgary, the other McMaster University, has found that vaping has the potential of impacting prenatal brain development in zebrafish. Human melanoma has also been successfully modeled in zebrafish. Some of these reasons are outlined below: Zebrafish are vertebrates and therefore share a high degree of sequence and functional homology with mammals, including humans. Although it is much more difficult to do, the exact mutation that the patient has can be introduced into zebrafish as well—this is called a “knock-in”. Also, mutations induced by mutagenesis do not have time to be selected against and thus give rise to stronger phenotypes that are far easier to map. In the past two decades, Zebrafish has become one of the preferred in vivo model organisms for studying diverse processes like regeneration , embryogenesis [9, 10], autophagy , behaviour [12, 13] and sleep. Furthermore, considering the emerging use of zebrafish in the novel worldwide research endeavours, we aimed to compare and elaborate the zebrafish neurophysiology model in PD research with regard to disease development factors, cause-effect relationship of OS and comorbidities (focussing on sleep disturbances), and the pharmacological potential of antioxidant molecules. In vitro fertilization can be performed if necessary. Another advantage is that adult zebrafish breed readily (approximately every 10 days) and can produce as many as 50 to 300 eggs at a time. However, there is a limit on what types of diseases can be studied in zebrafish. Such a catalog of phenotypes, combined with the experimental advantages of the zebrafish embryo, has a high potential to improve the drug screening process: in addition to information gained through in vitro interaction studies with isolated target molecules or through biochemical analyses of cultured cells, assays carried out in zebrafish embryos will provide primary readout information … For a patient with a neurological disease, the neurons of knock-out embryos can be fluorescently labeled to see if they form incorrectly. A recent study conducted by the University of Alberta suggests that the cannabis compounds THC and CBD may have negative effects on the development of the nervous system. Moreover, zebrafish have two eyes, a mouth, brain, spinal cord, intestine, pancreas, liver, bile ducts, kidney, esophagus, heart, ear, nose, muscle, blood, bone, cartilage, and teeth. Although the main focus of zebrafish research has traditionally been on developmental biology, keeping and observing zebrafish in the lab led to the identification of diseases similar to humans, such as cancer, which subsequently became a subject for study. Zebrafish embryos are able to absorb chemicals that have been added to their water, meaning it is easy to introduce changes to their genes using nothing more than chemical mutagens. Or if the patient’s disease symptoms began during development in utero, knock-out or knock-in zebrafish embryos can be examined for gene expression changes (compared to embryos without the mutation) that could lead to abnormal development. Scientists use a variety of laboratory techniques to investigate the genetic cause of human diseases. Zebrafish offspring also grow and develop very quickly. Many structural, functional and developmental similarities exist between zebrafish and human retinas, providing researchers with an excellent model to study human vision. Additionally, zebrafish are not useful models for human diseases that mainly take place in a tissue type or body part that zebrafish do not have (e.g., prostate, mammary glands, lungs). The tropical zebrafish is a popular aquarium fish, yet it is also an important vertebrate model organism in scientific research for studying developmental processes and human diseases. Zebrafish embryos and larvae are completely transparent, meaning that it is possible to follow the impact of a genetic manipulation or pharmacological treatment using non-invasive imaging techniques. The generation of a knock-out of the dystrophin gene in zebrafish has been shown to closely resemble the severity and progression of the human disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 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